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WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT

Watershed Development/ Soil & Water Conservation:

Nuapada is one of the most drought occurring districts in the state. It comes under the Western Undulated Agro Climatic zone of Orissa state. The slope varies from 2% at the cultivated land to as high as 15-20% near the valley of mountains. It receives around 1300 to 1350 mm rainfall per annum and the rainfall is very much erratic in nature. The whole rainfall is being received within 62-65 rainy days. Due to heavy intensity of rainfall, it causes rills and gullies causing to great soil loss and it leaves the soil most unproductive there by threatens the livelihoods of the small and marginal farmers which constitute 75-80% in the district. Due to varied land slope and undulated land type, the rain water cannot be stored in a short time and goes unutilized as runoff to the rivers. As such due to heavy soil loss from the upper reach areas, the soil gets deposited in the water storage structures in the lower reaches reducing the capacity of the storage. As the watershed is a geo- hydrological  unit where all the water drains into a common point, the different components like soil and water conservation, Land Development, Plantation, Agriculture Development, capacity Building of the stakeholders on the various core issues of the village including the improvement of the livelihoods of the poor and the poorest in a participatory mode. So the watershed has a greater role to play in changing the district scenario with respect to rise of ground water table through artificial recharge.

Watershed is an integrated approach based on the principles of participatory planning, execution, monitoring and evaluation.

  1. To promote overall socio-economic condition of resource poor.
  2. Optimum utilization of Natural Resources for holistic development.
  3. Development of human resources.
  4. Ecological balance through reduction of soil erosion improvement of soil moisture regime and ground water recharge.
  5. Encouraging people’s participation in development process i.e., planning, implementating & maintenance of the assets created,
  6. Mitigate adverse climate effect on crop production, livestock & human population,
  7. Increase in production and productivity,
  8. Crop diversification.

Block wise watershed details:

Sl no.

Block

No of MWS identified by ORSAC

MWS whose project period completed

DPAP

RLTAP

WORLP

NWDPRA

IWMP

1

NUAPADA

124

19

31

2

10

1

5

2

KOMNA

143

18

28

2

10

1

11

3

KHARIAR

63

17

28

2

10

1

5

4

BODEN

73

18

28

2

10

1

 

5

SINAPALLI

81

17

27

2

10

1

6

 

TOTAL

484

89

142

10

50

5

27

 

Development:

  1. At present 234 no. of micro watershed projects are operating in the district under ACA, DPAP, IWMP, NWDPRA and DFID funded WORLP schemes
  2. 13 nos of project Implementing Agencies (PIAs) from Govt. and NGO are engaged for the successful implementation of these watersheds.
  3. Out of total treatable area of 104708 Ha targeted under watershed development 27628 Ha has been treated so far till may 2008 through 1836 ha area covered under mixed tree as well as medicinal plantation and 35 Ha avenue plantation. About 2500 nos of check dams, runoff management structures , gully control structures  and loose boulder structures has been constructed in order to reduce runoff flow and increase the time of concentration so as to increase ground water recharge. About 896 nos. of water bodies have been created resulting 2886 ha of additional irrigation potential in the district through watershed development.
  4. In order to enhance  ground water recharge & increase of ground water table 571nos of farm ponds has been allotted through NREGA scheme to the tune of 200 lakh out of which 375 farm ponds have been completed so far.
  5. So far 1818 SHGs comprising of 22052 members have been formed in the 262 watershed villages with a total savings of Rs 190.34 lakhs. Out of which 860 SHGs have been linked with bank to avail credit to cater their productive need.
  6. 1854 User Groups comprising 19420 members have been organized to plan, execute and maintain physical assets. Rs 110.03 lakhs have been contributed by them towards watershed development fund (WDF).
  7. 881 nos of vegetable mini kits have been distributed to farmers during rabi 2007-08 in convergence with Horticulture department to promote backyard kitchen garden.
  8. Root and tuber crops i.e., Yam, orange fleshed sweet potato & Elephant foot yam have been promoted in the backyards of watershed areas in collaboration with CTCRI & CIP scientists.
  9. Introduction of tissue culture banana & hybrid papaya in watershed villages is an impressive achievement during the year 2007-08.
  10. SRI’(System of Rice Intensification) method of rice cultivation is an innovative step towards organic farming & sustainable agriculture in watershed villages.
  11. Pisciculture is the focus programme to enhance rural economy in watershed areas. 87 nos. of SHGs are involved in pisciculture taking same nos of water bodies during the year 2007-08.

Future Plan:

  1. Increase Irrigation potentiality.
  2. Self employment
  3. Increase in cropping intensity and change in cropping pattern( low remunerative to high remunerative crop)
  4. Storing and marketing of farm products.
  5. To strengthen SHG through Capacity Building
  6. Storage and collective marketing of Onion.
  7. Focus on cultivation of cotton, ground nut, sunflower fodder cultivation.
  8. On- farm Income Generating Activities.

Findings:

Out of total no of 484 micro watersheds, 89 nos were already covered. Presently 234 nos are going on under different programmes. So, rest 161 watersheds needs to be covered to treat all the left out watershed area.